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 Distance Learning Bibliography
Home • ~Alexandra Rowe • Distance Learning Bibliography

Anderson, T. (2004). Teaching in an online learning context.  In T. Anderson & F.
Elloumi (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Online Learning (pp. 273-294). Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University.

Arnold, N., & Ducate, L. (2006). Future foreign language teachers’ social and cognitive
collaboration in an outline environment. Language Learning & Technology, 10(1), 42-66.

Arnold, N., Ducate, L., & Lomicka, Lara. (in press) Virtual communities of
practice in teaching education.  CALICO.

Baldwin, J. L. (2005). Asynchronous discussion forums: A closer look at the
structure, focus and group dynamics that facilitate reflective thinking.  Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 5(1), 93-115.

Baskin, C. & Barker, M. (2004). Scoping social presence and social context cues to
support knowledge construction in an ICT rich environment.  In Proceedings of 2004 AARE Conference.  Melbourne, Victoria. Retrieved June 4, 2007, from

Beuchot, A. & Bullen, M. (2005). Interaction and interpersonality in online discussion
forums. Distance Education, 26(1), 67-87.

Butler, W. (1992). The social construction of knowledge in an electronic discourse
community.  Unpublished Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin

Corich, S., & Kinshuk, L. M. H. (2004). Assessing Discussion Forum
Participation: In Search of Quality. Retrieved March 23, 2007 from 

Davis, B. H., & Brewer, J. P. (1997). Electronic discourse: Linguistic individuals in
virtual space. State University of New York Press.

Dede, C. (2002). Comparative analysis on the roles of message, medium and
communicative method in empowering learning. Journal of Computer Assisted
Learning, 18(4), 498-501.

Demo, D.A. (2001). Discourse analysis for languge teachers. Online resource Digests.
EDO-FL-01-07. Retrieved April 10, 2007, from

Dimcjal, M. M., Walther, J.B., & Swan, K. (2001). Presence in mediated instruction:
Bandwidth, behavior, and expectancy violations. FL: Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning.

Danchak, M. M., Walther, J. B. & Swan, K. (2001). Presence in mediated instruction:
bandwidth, behavior, and expectancy violations.  Orlando, FL: Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Sloan-C international Conference on Online Learning.
Eklund, J., & Eklund, P. (1996). Integrating the Web and the Teaching of Technology:
Cases across Two Universities.  Retrieved April 13, 2007, from

Garrison, D.R., Lowe, C., & Anderson, T. (1997). Analysis of a global online debate and
the development of an interaction analysis model for examining social construction of knowledge in computer conferencing. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Network, 8(2), 61-74

Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Thinking in a text-based
environment. Computer Conferencing in higher education. Internet in Higher
Eduation, 2(2), 87-105.

Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical Thinking, Cognitive,
Presence, and Computer Conferencing in Distance Education. The American Journal of Distance Eduation 15(1), 7-23.

Garrison, D. R. & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century. London:

Guan, Ying-Hua, Tsai, Chin-Chung, & Hwang, Fu-Kwun. (2006). Content analysis of
online discussion on a senior-high-school discussion forum of a virtual physics laboratory. Instructional Schience, 34, 279-311

Gunawardena, C.N. (1995). Social presence theory and implications for interaction and
collaborative learning in computer conferences. Internatopnal Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1(2/3), 147-166.

Gunawardena, C.N., Lowe, C.A., & Anderson, T. (1997). Analysis of a Global Online
Debate and the Development of an Interaction Analysis Mode for Examining Social Construction of Knowledge in Computer Conferencing, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 17(4), 397-431.

Gunawardena, C.N., Lowe, C.A., & Anderson, T. (1998). Transcript analysis of
computer-mediated conferences as a tool for testing constructivist and social-constructivist learning theories.  In Distance Learning 1998: Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, 139-145. August 5-7, Madison, WI.

Gunawardena, C.N., & Zittle, F.J. (1997). Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction
within a computer-mediated conferencing environment. The American Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 8-26.

Hara, N., Bonk, C.J., & Angeli, C. (2000). Content analysis of online discussion in an
applied education psychology course. Instructional Science, 28, 115-152

Haythornthwaite, C., Kazmer, M., Robins, J., & Shoemaker, S. (2000). Community
development among distance learners: Temporal and technological dimensions. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 6(1). Retrieved March 14, 2007, from

Heckman, R. and Ananbi, H. (2005). A content analytic comparison of learning processes
in online and face-to-face case study discussions.  Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(2), Retrieved May, 16, 2007, from

Henri, F. (1992). Computer conferencing and content analysis. In A.R. Kaye (Ed.),
Collaborative learning through computer conferencing: The Najaden papers (pp. 115-136). New York: Springer.

Herring, S.C. (Ed.). (1996).  Compute- Mediated communication: Linguistics, social, and
cross-cultural perspectives.  Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Herring, S.C. (2003). Computer-mediated discourse analysis: An approach to researching
online behavior.  In S.A Barab, R.Kling and J.H. Gray (Eds.), Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning. New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved May, 30, 2007, from

Holsti, O. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities.  Don Mills:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Hostetter, C. & Busch, M. (2006). Measuring up online: The relationship between social
presence and student learning satisfaction.  Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Leanring, 6(2), 1-12.

Hwang, Wu-Yuin & Wang, Chin-Yu. (2004). A study of learning time patterns in
asynchronous learning environments. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 292-304.

Kern, R., Ware, P., & Warschauer, M. (2004). Crossing frontiers: New directions in
online pedagogy and research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 243-260

Kilpatrick, S.I., Barrett, M.S., & Jones, T. A. (2003). Defining learning communities.  
Discussion Paper D1/2003 CRLRA Discussion Paper Series ISSN 1440-480X,  Retrieved July 4, 2007, from

Lapadat, J. C. (2001). Online interaction: A discourse analysis of a graduate level
webcourse. Paper presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for Text and Discourse.

Lapadat, J.C. (2002). Written interaction: a key component in online learning. JCMC
7(4). Retrieved 13 April 2007, from

Levin, B.B. (1999). Analysis of the content and purpose of four different kinds of
electronic communications among preservice teachers. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32, 139-156.

Li, Yili. (2000).  Linguistic characteristics of ESL writing in Task-Based E-mail
activities. System, 28(2), 229-245.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2003). Online communication in dPBL: Can threaded discussion
provide social presence and convergence? In C. McLoughlin, P. Le Cornu, & W. Jackson (Eds.), 16th Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia’s Biennial Forum: Sustaining Quality Learning Environments (p. 1-9). Canberra: ODLAA.

Lobry de Bruyn, L. A. (2004). Monitoring online communication: Can the development
of convergence and social presence indicate an interactive learning environment? Distance Education, 25(1). 67-81.

Lowes, S., Lin, P., & Wang, Y. (2006). Studying the effectiveness of the discussion
forum in online professional development course.  Paper prepared for the 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.

Maloney-Krichmar, D., Preece, J. (2002). The Meaning of an online health community in
the lives of its members: roles, relationships and group dynamics.  Social Implications of Information and Communication Technology. 2002 International Symposium on Technology and Society ISTAS’02, 20-27.

Marra, R. 2006. A review of research methods for assessing content of computer-
mediated discussion forums. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 17(3), 243-267.

Marra, R. M. & Moore, J. L. (2004). Content Analysis of Online Discussion Forums: A comparative analysis of Protocols. ETR&D, 52(2).

Massolini, M., & Maddison, S. (2003). Sage, guide or ghost? The effects of instructor
intervention on student participation in online discussion forums. Computers & Education, 40(3), 237-253

McKenzie, W., & Murphy, D. (2000). “I hope this goes somewhere”: Evaluation of an
online discussion group. Australian Journal of Educational Technology 16(3),

McMillan, D. W. & Chavis, D. M. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory.  
American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(1), 6-23

Meyer, J. D. (2000). Quality of life in the school of the global village. Paper presented at
the Teaching Online in Higher Education 2000 virtual conference. Retrieved March 9, 2007, from

Meyer, K. A. (2003). Face to face versus threaded discussions: the role of time and
higher-order thinking. JALN, 7(3). 55-65.

Meyer, K. A. (2004). Evaluating online discussions: Four different frames of analysis.
JALN, 8(2), 101-114.

Newman, D., Johnson, C., Cochrane, C., & Webb, B. (1996). An experiment in group
learning technology: Evaluating critical thinking in face-to-face and computer supported seminars.  Retrieved May 13, 2007, from

Newman, D. R., Webb, B., & Cochrane, C. (1995). A Content Analysis Method to
Measure Critical Thinking in Face-to-Face and Computer Support Group Learning, 1999.

Nicholson, S.A. & Bond, N. (2003). Collaborative refection and professional community
building: An analysis of preservice teachers’use of an electronic discussion board. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(2), 259-279.

Palloff, R. M. & Pratt, K. (1999). Building learning communities in cyberspace: Effective
strategies for the online classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.    

Paulsen, M.F. (2000). Online education: An international analysis of Web-based
education and strategic recommendations to decision makers.

Pawan, P., Paulus, T.M., Yalcin, S., & Change, C.-F. (2003). Online learning: Pattern of
engagement and interaction among in-service teachers. Language Learning & Technology, 7(3), 119-140. Retrieved May 10, 2004, from
Pena-Shaff.J., Martin, W., & Gay, G. (2001). An epistemological framework for
analyzing student interactions in computer-mediated communication environment. Journal of Interactive Leaning Research, 12, 41-68

Pena-Shaff, J., & Nicholls, C. (2004). Analyzing student interactions and meaning
construction in Computer Bulletin Board (BBS) discussions. Computers and Education, 42, 243-265.

Pena-Shaff, J., Altman, W., & Stephenson, H. 2005. Asynchronous online discussions
as a tool for learning: students’ attitudes, expectations and perceptions.  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 16(4), 409-430.

Picciano, Anthony G. (2002). Beyond student perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence
and performance in an online course. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 6(1). Retrieved May 11, 2007, from

Polhemus, L., Shih, L-F., & Swan, K. (2001). Virtual interactivity: The representation
of social presence in an online discussion. Annual meeting of the American Educational Research.  Retrieved May 16, 2007, from

Preece, J. (2000). Online communities: Designing usability, supporting sociability.
Chichester: John Wiley.

Rafaeli, S. (1988). Interactivity: From new media to communication. In R.P. Hawkins,
J.M. Wiemann, & S. Pingree (Eds.), Advancing communication science: Merging mass and interpersonal process (pp. 101-134). Newbury Park, CA:Sage.

Resta, P. (1995). Project CIRCLE: Student mentors as a strategy for training and
supporting teachers in the use of computer-based tools for collaborative learning. Learning Technology Center, College of Education, the University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved May 16, 2007, from

Richardson, J.C. & Swan, K. (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in
relation to students’ courses in relation to students’ perceived learning and satisfaction. JALN, 7(1), 68-88.

Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, R., and Archer, W. (2001a). Assessing Social
Presence in Asynchronous Text-based, Computer Conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), Retrieved May 14, 2007, from

Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, R., and Archer, W. (2001b). Methodological issues
in the content analysis of computer conference transcripts.  International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 12.  Retrieved April 28, 2007 from

Rourke, L. & Anderson, T. (2002). Exploring social communication in computer
conferencing.  Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13(3), 259-275.

Rovai, A. P. (2001). Building classroom community at a distance: a case study.
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Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1996). Computer support for knowledge-building
communities. In T. Koschmann (Ed.), CSCL: Theory and Practice of an Emerging Paradigm (pp. 249-267). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers

Shapley, P. (2000). On-line Education to Develop Complex Reasoning Skills in Organic
Chemistry. JALN, 4(2). Retrieved May 14, 2007, from

Shih, L. & Swan, K. (2005). Fostering social presence in asynchronous online class
discussions. Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Computer support for collaborative learning: learning 2005: the next 10 years!

Stacey, E. (2002). Social presence online: Networking learners at a distance. Education
and Information Tedhnologies, 7(4), 287-294.

Swan, K., Shea, P., Fredericksen, E., Pickett, A., Pelz, W. & Maher, G. (2000). Building
knowledge building communities: consistency, contact and communication in the virtual classroom, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23(4), 389-413

Swan, K., Polhemus, L., Shish, L-F, & Rogers, D. (2001). Building knowledge building
communities through asynchronous online course discussion, Seattle, WA: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.

Swan, K. (2002a). Building learning communities in online course: the importance of
interaction.  Educational, Communication & Information, 2 (3), 23-49.

Swan, K. (2002b). Immediacy, social presence, and asynchronous discussion.  In J.
Bourne & J.C. Moore (Eds.) Elements of Quality Online Education, Volume 3. Needham, MA: Sloan Center for Online Education.

Swan, K. (2003a).  Learning effectiveness: What the research tells us.  In J. Bourne &
J.C. Moore (Eds.) Elements of Quality Online Education, Practice and Direction (pp. 13-45). Needham, M.A: Sloan Center for Online Education.

Swan, K. (2003b). Developing social presence in online discussions. In S. Naidu (Ed),
Learning and Teaching with Technology: Principle and Practices (pp. 147-164.  London: Kogan.

Swan, K. & Shih, L. F. (2005). On the nature and development of social presence in
online course discussions.  JALN, 9(3), 115-136.

Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of college attrition.
Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Tu, C-H.  (2000). On-line learning migration: from social learning theory to social
presence theory in a CMC environment. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 23, 27-37.

Tu, C-H. (2001). How Chinese perceive social presence: An examination of
interaction in an online learning environment. Educational Media International,  38(1), 45-60.

Tu, C-H. (2002a). The measurement of social presence in an online learning
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Tu, C-H. & Corry, M. (2002). Research in online learning community.  Retrieved July 4,

Tu, C-H. & McIsaac, M.S. (2002b). The relationship of social presence and interaction in
online classes. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16(3), 132-150.

Warschauer, M., Turbee, L., & Roberts, B. (1994). Computer learning network and
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Weasenforth, D., Biesenbach-Lucas, S., & Meloni, C. (2002). Realizing constructivist
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Zeiss, E. & Isabeli-Garcia, C. L. (2005). The role of asynchronous computer-mediated
communication on enhancing cultural awareness. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(3), 151-169.

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