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 Kaplan Summary & Teaching
Home • ~Alexandra Rowe • Kaplan Summary & Teaching
Techniques to be considered in Teaching Writing:
  • Draw Ss attention to consider the reader and trying to create shared knowledge.
  • It is sufficient that Ss can produce oral text at the beginning.
  • Writing has different aims according to the stage:
                Earlier stages:
                        1. to create stress-free environment
                        2. to provide practice in the manipulation of grammatical structures and increase vocabulary knowledge
                Later stages:
                        1. to carry out the previous skills
                        2. to work out the transformation of ideas in a more cognitive and complex organization
  • The idea of a unified pattern for the same genre is misleading.
  • It is not easy for the Ss to recover the outline of a text. They can only follow an outline to produce a text.
  • The analysis should not be on sentence level only but also on the whole meaning level. Ss may write correct English and follow the pattern, but their writing is still vague, incoherent, and inconsistent.
  • The idea of giving a model and templates is not sufficient.
  • Ss should be aware of the characteristics of the English writing derived from Clyne's cultural parameters. English writing is form-oriented rather than content-oriented. It advocates concreteness and reasoning rather than abstractness. It follows the linear method. It also stresses symmetry and harmony in the text rather than positive politeness. However, a note of caution, English writing is not sharply following the characteristics to the extreme.
  • What is required from the teacher is to draw the Ss attention to
                1.  how to organize a text
                2.  how to avoid egregious faults (I like this word rather than the typical comments of the teacher "stupid" or                 "silly mistakes") due to mother tongue interference.
                3.  how to identify textual linguistic features that are different in the target language that are not easily observable to Ss. (Mauranen)
  • Teachers need to model the approach for analyzing texts several times before students are asked to undertake their own analyses.
submitted by Karima